Welfare and Management of Elephants in Captivity :
The Workshop on Welfare Parameters and their Significance for Captive Elephants and their Mahouts in India was organized under the auspices of the Project Elephant Directorate, Ministry of Environment and Forests and Climate Change (MoEF & CC), Govt. of India. It is the outcome of an all-India survey (covering 1,200 captive elephants in 12 states of India) conducted by Compassion Unlimited Plus Action (CUPA), Bangalore, in technical collaboration with the Asian Nature Conservation Foundation (ANCF), Bangalore, sponsored by World Society for Protection of Animals (WSPA), U.K. To analyse the large set of data collected initially, parameters and their properties were identified, defined and ratings for each parameter and its property were assigned. Later, this entire process was critically reviewed by experts through the workshop.
Captive Elephants in Circuses :
Elephants in the entertainment industry such as circuses have rarely been studied in a Scientific manner. This report forms one in a series of documents which reveals the actual conditions in which captive elephants live and work. A detailed analysis of the management regime under which they perform and live, with welfare parameters that have been graded objectively and logically, has been presented in this study. It is believed that science should pave the way for intelligent policy-making without resorting to sensationalism and emotive judgments.This report will help to look closer at years of conditioned responses to the use of wild animals in circuses.The attempt to phase the mahout would then be a simple, logical step forward in the right direction, helping both conservation and welfare needs of this wild, iconic species, which has existed with man for 3,500 years but has never been domesticated.
Wandering Elephants of Punjab :
Captive elephants have not been part of the popular public culture of western India unlike in southern or eastern India. The elephants and their mahouts ave drifted into the Punjab area from Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and have rarely been studied for their management or upkeep. They are an unknown group of animals in an unlikely place, in an unsuitable environment and are taken from place to place to earn a living. This report assesses their welfare as to their physical, social and health conditions along with issues related to their management.
Captive Elephants of Karnataka :
The state of Karnataka has nurtured captive elephants for several centuries. It has provided a variety of facilities and several management systems have evolved in the process such as forest camps, zoo, circus, temple and private individuals based on ownership. The conditions for elephants in captivity are quite different from those available in the wild. This deviation has been used in comparison with their current status to suggest any remedial measures to improve their well-being. One hundred and fifty three elephants were examined and their conditions and welfare status have been assessed through this document.
Model for Elephant keeping and Keeper Welfare :
The budgeting of different activities of elephants kept in captivity provides an opportunity to compare the behaviours exhibited by wild and captive elephants. The results based on this approach may also offer a scope for understanding the welfare status of elephants kept in captivity. This analysis tries to associate the connection between elephant activity budget and its reflection on the welfare status of elephants in captivity. In addition, the understanding of the interaction between elephant and its mahout may also offer some detailed insights on elephant welfare status. The data collection was carried out with the support of school/college teachers/ students, and personnel from NGOs’ from 9 districts of Karnataka. This process provided two distinct benefits, the welfare status of elephants observed was known, and helped the observers know more about elephants. This knowledge also aided in teaching biology more effectively in the schools and colleges.
Spatial distribution of Captive Elephant locations in southern India :
This study conducted on Asian Elephants has resulted in obtaining information on the spatial distribution of their locations and their influence on the welfare of the species in captivity. The spatial data helps in understanding the concept of a welfare location, and this can be defined by determining the landscape features prevalent around the captive elephant. The influence of different landscape elements around the captive elephants can be clearly seen from this investigation.
Captive Elephants of Tamil Nadu :
Unlike their counterparts in the wild, elephants kept in captivity undergo different set of living conditions. The welfare status of the elephants, and the socio-economic status and professional experiences of elephant handlers in three institutions: Forest Camps, Temple and Zoo in Tamil Nadu, are highlighted through this investigation. This investigation traces the level of deviations elephants have to undergo if they are kept in human influence and unnatural conditions.
Captive Elephants of Gujarat :
The occurrence of wild animals outside their existing natural range occurs only under captive conditions. The maintenance of wild animals beyond their natural range areas may involve exposing them to unsuitable environment. This document investigates the welfare status of captive elephants belonging to three temples (Jaganathapur temple at Ahmedabad, Hanuman temple at Baroda and Suraj Ramji Mandir at Surat), and elephants at the Forest department and Zoo in the state of Gujarat. Data was collected through observation of elephants, and interviews with mahout and/or management regarding housing conditions, provision of everyday food and water requirements, veterinary care and opportunity for expression of natural behaviors as seen in wild elephant.
Captive Elephants in Zoos :
The zoos in India are home to a diverse species of animals and elephants that form a part of the captive set of animals. We sampled 49 elephants from 11 zoos covering seven States in India. Welfare of the elephants kept in these zoos have been assessed through a number of parameters which have been rated on a scale identified by a team of experts. The investigation and resultant document are the first detailed report dealing with population status, management and welfare on elephants in captivity in zoos sampled across India.
Database for captive Elephants and their Mahouts in Karnataka
This investigation is aimed at developing a comprehensive database for elephants and their mahouts in Karnataka state. This also became a source of creating fact sheets or profiles for elephants kept in different management regimes in the state. It is assumed that, this experiment & analysis may act as a tool for better management and monitoring device for the state wildlife department and others involved in welfare and management of the species in captivity.